Havre PCE-877 - History

Havre PCE-877 - History

Havre

A city in northern Montana.

(PCE 877: dp. 640, 1.185', b. 33', dr.9', s. 15k.,cpl.99; a. 13", 3 40mm., 5 20mm., 4 dep., 1 dep. (h.b.), 2 act.; cl. PC-11-842)

PCE-877 was laid down ~by Albina Engine & Machine Works, Portland, Oreg., 6 May 1943; launched 11 August;sponsored by Miss Marjory Wooton, and commissioned 14 February 1944, Lt. Coleman H. Smith in command.

After shakedown off San Diego PCE-877 sailed for Hawaii arriving Pearl Harbor 19 September for conversion to an amphibious force control ship. Following her conversion and training for her new assignment, PCE-877 departed Peal Harbor 22 January 1945, reaching Eniwetok 3 February. Proceeding to Saipan, she joined the Iwo Jima invasion force and was enroute to the Japanese held volcano fortress on the 15th. Four days later the conversed sub chaser arrived in the transport area where she directed and controlled landing craft on their approach to the beaches. Following the initial assault she patrolled off the island, performing rescue and salvage operations.

With Iwo Jima secured, PCE-877 steamed to Leyte to prepare for the next major campaign, invasion of Okinawa. In late March the largest amphibious force of the Pacific war steamed to the Ryukyu Islands. American troops hit the beaches 1 April and PCE-877 once again assumed attack station to screen and direct landing ships on their approach to shore. Under frequent enemy air attack, she remained off Okinawa for 2 weeks giving support to the troops. Following a short overhaul at Ulithi, PCE 877 resumed operations off Okinawa in mid May. On 28 May she came under Japanese air attack while assisting LCS-119, which had been demolished by a suicide plane. During this encounter she aided in splashing an enemy plane and recovered sixty-one survivors from the stricken ship. For the rest of the war she performed patrol off Okinawa and amphibious training in the Philippines. Reclassified PCE 877 on 20 August, she sailed 6 days later to escort a transport convoy enroute to Tokyo.

PCE- 877 returned to the United States early in 1943, arriving Charleston, S.C., in February. From 1946 to April 1954 she was attached to Amphibious Control Squadron 2 and engaged in exercises in the North Atlantic, Chesapeake Bay, and the Caribbean.

During April 1954 she sailed to the Great Lakes where she became a Naval Reserve Training Ship in the 9th Naval District. Here she was again reclassified PCE- 877 October 1955, and was named Havre 15 February 1956 For the next 10 years Havre operated throughout the Great Lakes, engaging in 2-week cruises which provided valuable training for Naval Reservists, including ASW exercises.

At present Havre continues operations in 1967 out of her home port Great Lakes, Ill.

PCE-877 received two battle stars for World War II service.


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* Much will depend on the outcome of the decision, reached during President Nixon’s visit this year to the Soviet Union, for a rendezvous and docking mission, involving three U. S. Astronauts and three Soviet cosmonauts, to take place sometime in 1975.

Now enrolled at Purdue University, Midshipman Wiggers is working toward a degree in geology. His association with the Navy began at the age of 14 when he joined the Evanston, Illinois, division of the Naval Sea Cadet Corps. Over the following four years, he participated in training cruises on board the USS Havre (PCE-877), the USS Okinawa (LPH-3), and the USS Lexington (CVT-16). Although his interest in aeronautics and the space sciences occupies much of his free time, he hopes to participate in the nuclear submarine program after his graduation.

Digital Proceedings content made possible by a gift from CAPT Roger Ekman, USN (Ret.)


Contents

Human presence on the territory of Le Havre dates back to Prehistory around 400,000 BC. [1]

Many remains from the Neolithic period have been excavated in the lower city and the Montgeon Forest [fr] : [2] it is at this time that the population increased and settled down in the first hamlets. [1] During the Iron Age Celtic people from Caletes settled in the region. From ancient times river traffic on the Seine supported Gallo-Roman cities of the estuary. A Roman road linked Lillebonne (Juliobona) at the mouth of the Seine through the current territory of the commune of Le Havre. [ citation needed ]

The first mention of Graville Abbey was in the 9th century, [3] about Sanvic on the plateau. The village of Leure and its commercial port appear in the 11th century. [4] It served as a shelter for ships awaiting the tide to enter the port of Harfleur upstream. It was at this time that William Malet, companion of William the Conqueror built himself a castle at Graville and a Motte-and-bailey castle in Aplemont. [3] Several hamlets of fishermen and farmers, the first parishes emerged in the High Middle Ages. During the Hundred Years War the fortified ports Leurre and Harfleur were destroyed. At the beginning of the 16th century the growth of trade, the silting-up of the port of Harfleur, and the fear of an English landing pushed the king François I to found the port of Le Havre and the town. [ citation needed ]

On 8 October 1517, François I signed the founding charter of the port the plans of which are first assigned to Vice Admiral Guyon le Roy. The "big tower" defended the entrance. Despite difficulties associated with marshland and storms, the port of Le Havre welcomed its first ship in October 1518. The king himself travelled there in 1520 and granted in perpetuity the privileges of Le Havre and gave them his own arms consisting of a salamander. [5] The military function was also encouraged: Le Havre was an assembly point for the French fleet during the wars. Ships also went fishing for cod in Newfoundland.

In 1525, a storm caused the death a hundred people, destroyed 28 fishing boats and the Chapel of Notre Dame. [5] In 1536 the chapel was rebuilt in wood with stone pillars under the direction of Guillaume de Marceilles. A gothic tower with a large octagonal spire was added in 1540. The same year Francis I entrusted the planning and fortification project with Italian architect Girolamo Bellarmato. [5] He had full power and organized the neighbourhood of Saint-François according to specific standards (grid plan, limiting the height of the houses, etc.). The first school and the granary were erected. The 1550s saw the creation of several municipal institutions: the town hall, the Amirauté (court of Justice), the hospital, the seat of the Viscounty and of the bailiwick. [5]

The New World attracted adventurers and some left from Le Havre such as Villegagnon who founded a colony in Brazil (Fort Coligny) in 1555. At the end of the 16th century trade expanded quickly and Le Havre saw the arrival of American products like leather, sugar, and tobacco. One of the main players in the traffic was an explorer and cartographer Guillaume Le Testu (1509–1573): a dock in Le Havre still bears his name.

On 20 April 1564 Le Havre became the port of departure for the French expedition of René Goulaine de Laudonnière to the New World where he created the first French colony at Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville, Florida. Famed artist Jacques le Moyne de Morgues joined Laudonnière on this colonizing effort and created the first known artistic depictions by a European of Native Americans in the New World, specifically the Timucua tribes in the modern-day areas of northeast Florida and southeast Georgia. [6]

The Protestant Reformation experienced relative success in Normandy. From 1557, John Venable, library colporteur from Dieppe disseminated in Pays de Caux and Lower Normandy the writings of Martin Luther and John Calvin. The first Protestant church was built in Le Havre in 1600 in the district of Sanvic at 85 rue Romain Rolland. [5] It was destroyed in 1685 on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV. It was not until 1787 and the Edict of Versailles of King Louis XVI that Le Havre reopened a Protestant place of worship in the district of Saint-François. [7]

Le Havre was affected by the Wars of Religion: On 8 May 1562 the reformers took the city, looted churches, and expelled Catholics. [5] Fearing a counter-attack by the royal armies, they turned to the English who sent their troops. The occupants of the city built fortifications under the Treaty of Hampton Court. The troops of Charles IX, commanded by Anne de Montmorency, attacked Le Havre and the English were finally expelled on 29 July 1563. [5] The fort built by the English was destroyed and the tower of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame was lowered on the orders of the King. He then ordered the construction of a new citadel which was completed in 1574. New fortifications were established between 1594 and 1610. [5] In 1581 the construction began of a canal between Harfleur and the estuary of the Seine.

The defense function of Le Havre was reaffirmed and modernization of the port began in the 16th century on the orders of Cardinal Richelieu, governor of the city: the arsenal and the Roy Basin were developed, the walls were reinforced and a fortress built. [8] It was in the latter that Cardinal Mazarin imprisoned the Fronde princes, Longueville, Conti, and Condé. At the beginning of the reign of Louis XIV, Colbert decided to renovate the port infrastructure and military: the work lasted 14 years. [8] In 1669, the Minister inaugurated the Havre to Harfleur canal which is also called the "canal Vauban".

Le Havre affirmed its maritime and international calling during the 17th century: the Company of the Orient settled there in 1643. [8] There were imports of exotic products from America (sugar, cotton, tobacco, coffee, and various spices). The slave trade enriched local traders especially in the 18th century. With 399 slave trade expeditions in the 17th and 18th centuries, Le Havre was the third largest French slave trade port after Nantes and La Rochelle. [9] Maritime trade however is subject to international relations and a European context: the wars of Louis XIV and Louis XV momentarily interrupted the development of Le Havre. The Anglo-Dutch bombarded the city several times, notably in 1694 and in 1696. [8] [10]

In 1707 Michel Dubocage, a Captain from Le Havre, explored the Pacific Ocean aboard the Discovery and reached the Clipperton Island. Upon his return to Le Havre, he made his fortune by setting up a trading house and bought a mansion (now a Museum) in the heart of the Saint-François district and the lordship of Bléville. Another Captain from Le Havre Jean-Baptiste d'Après de Mannevillette (1707–1780) worked for the East India Company and mapped the coasts of India and China.

From the middle of the 18th century wealthy traders were building homes on the coast. [11] In 1749 Madame de Pompadour wanted to see the sea and Louis XV chose Le Havre to satisfy her desire. The visit was ruinous to the city's finances.

In 1759, the city was the staging point for a planned French invasion of Britain – thousands of troops, horses and ships being assembled there – only for many of the barges to be destroyed in the Raid on Le Havre and the invasion to be abandoned following the naval defeat at the Battle of Quiberon Bay.

The economic boom of Le Havre resulted in an increase of its population (18,000 inhabitants in 1787 [11] ) but also resulted in changes to the port and the city: the installation of a Tobacco Factory in the Saint-François district, the expansion of the shipyards, a new arsenal, and a commodity exchange. During a visit in 1786 Louis XVI approved the project to extend the city and it was François Laurent Lamandé he chose to take on the task of quadrupling the size of the city.

Between 1789 and 1793 the port of Le Havre was the second largest in France after that of Nantes. The Triangular trade continued until the war and its abolition. The port remained strategic because of the grain trade (supply of Paris) and its closeness to the British enemy.

The national events of the French Revolution were echoed in Le Havre: delegates for the List of Grievances were elected in March 1789. [12] Popular riots occurred in July and the National Guard was formed some time later. A mayor was elected in 1790, the year of celebration of the Fête de la Fédération. The year 1793 was difficult for France and for Le Havre because of the war, federalist insurrections, and economic stagnation. The religious Terror transformed Notre Dame Cathedral into a Temple of Reason. The city acquired the status of sub-prefecture in the administrative reform of the Year VIII (1799–1800). [13] Under the Empire Napoleon I came to Le Havre and ordered the construction of forts [14] A Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1800 but, because of the war against Britain and the continental blockade, port activity was reduced and activity of pirates increased. The population of Le Havre decreased to 16,231 inhabitants in 1815. [12]

The end of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars allowed trade to recover normally as the British threat receded. The context of new-found peace and economic growth led to a large influx of population. Le Havre quickly outgrew its walls and new neighbourhoods appeared. Many poor were still crammed into the slum of Saint Francis. Epidemics of cholera, typhoid fever, and "fevers" caused hundreds of deaths in the years 1830–1850. Alcoholism and infant mortality wreaked havoc in the poorest classes. Throughout the 19th century, the cosmopolitan aspect of the city only strengthened: in times of maritime prosperity, the workers of the Pays de Caux were driven to Le Havre because of the crisis in the weaving industry. The implantation of a large Breton community (10% of the population Le Havre at the end of the 19th century) modified the cultural life of Le Havre. On the docks and in the factories there were Italians, Poles and North Africans. The economic success of the city attracted Anglo-Saxon, Nordic, and Alsatian entrepreneurs [15]

The city and its port were transformed through major development work, partly funded by the state, which were spread throughout the 19th century – sometimes interrupted by political and economic crises. Several projects were completed such as construction of a new stock exchange and commercial basin in the first half of the century. There was progressive installation of gas lighting in 1835, [16] rubbish collection (1844), and sewerage works showed a concern for urban modernization. By mid-century the old ramparts had been razed and the surrounding communities annexed to the city so the population increased sharply. The period 1850–1914 was a golden age for Le Havre. Apart from a few years of depression (the American Civil War, [17] the Franco-Prussian War), trade exploded and the city was embellished with elegant new constructions (boulevards, city hall, courthouse, new stock exchange).

The effects of the industrial revolution were increasingly visible in Le Havre: the first steam dredge was used in 1831. The shipyards developed with Augustin Normand. [16] Frederic Sauvage developed his first propeller in Le Havre in 1833. The railway arrived in 1848 [18] which allowed the opening up of Le Havre. The docks were built in the same period as well as general warehouses. The industrial sector, however, remained in a minority in the 19th century: the plants were related to port traffic (shipyards, sugar refineries, rope factories, etc.). The banking sector developed but was still largely dependent on the outside. The city had few professionals and officials. The number of schools was inadequate even in the 1870s.

On the eve of the First World War Le Havre was the primary European port for coffee, [19] it imported some 250,000 tonnes of cotton and 100,000 tons of oil. European cabotage brought wood, coal, Northern Europe wheat, and Mediterranean wine and oil. The abolition of the slave trade gradually caused a change in traffic. Le Havre was not only an entry for American goods but also a transit point for migrants to the USA. Transatlantic steamer travel grew in the 1830s. [16]

Under the July Monarchy Le Havre was a Seaside resort popular with Parisians. The creation of marine baths went back to this time. It was in 1889 that the maritime boulevard was built, dominated by the Villa Maritime. [16] The casino Marie-Christine (1910) and the Palace of Regattas (1906) brought the Bourgeoisie and the first Beach huts were installed on the beach. [16] The end of the 19th century and of the Belle Époque, however, arrived with social tensions exacerbated by inflation and unemployment. From 1886, worker unrest, causing the Socialists to become increasingly influential, shook the city. The case of Jules Durand (a case in 1910 where Durand, secretary of a union of striking workers, was found guilty of complicity in murder) was symptomatic of this context. [20]

The human toll from the First World War was heavy for the city: Le Havre suffered about 6,000 dead, mostly soldiers who left to fight. The city was spared massive destruction as the front was much further north. Several ships were nevertheless torpedoed by German submarines in the Roadstead. One of the notable facts of the war was the installation of the Belgian government at Sainte-Adresse on the outskirts of Le Havre as they had been forced to flee the German occupation. [21] The city served as a base for the Triple Entente especially for British warships: 1.9 million British soldiers passed through the port of Le Havre. [22]

The Interwar period was marked by the cessation of population growth, social unrest, and economic crisis. At the end of the conflict inflation ruined many pensioners. The city became largely a workers city. Shortages and high prices caused the great strike of 1922 in which a state of emergency was declared. In 1936 the Breguet factory at Le Havre was occupied by strikers: [22] this was the beginning of the labour movement under the Popular Front. On the economic front the strong growth seen in the second half of the 19th century seemed to be over. The ports of northern Europe seriously competed with Le Havre and major port development work slowed. Oil imports, however, continued to grow and refineries emerged east of Le Havre. The global crisis of 1929 and protectionist measures hindered the development of trade. Only the travel industry was doing relatively well, with 500,000 passengers carried in 1930. The liner Normandie began sailing to New York in 1935. [22]

In the Second World War, German forces occupied Le Havre from the spring of 1940 causing an exodus of its population. [23] They made a naval base in preparation for the invasion of the United Kingdom (Operation Sealion) and set up the Festung Le Havre, [24] lined with bunkers, pillboxes and artillery batteries integrated into the Atlantic Wall. For the people of Le Havre, daily life was difficult because of shortages, censorship, bombings and political anti-Semitism: Mayor Léon Meyer was forced to leave his post because of his Jewish origins. The Le Havre resistance was built around several nodes such as the group of the high school of Le Havre or the Vagabond Bien-Aimé ("beloved vagabond"). These groups were involved with British intelligence and with acts of sabotage preceding the landings of 6 June.

Much of the population opted to evacuate at dusk by foot, bicycle or wagon, only to return during daylight hours after the Allied Forces air bombardments were over. [25]

Le Havre suffered 132 bombings by the Allies during the war. The Nazis also destroyed the port infrastructure and sank ships before leaving the city. The greatest destruction, however, occurred on 5 and 6 September 1944 when the British Royal Air Force [26] bombed the city centre and the port to weaken the occupier under Operation Astonia – often described as the storm of iron and fire. [27]

The results of the bombing campaign were appalling: 5,000 deaths (including 1,770 in 1944 [28] ), [26] 75,000 [26] to 80,000 injured, 150 hectares of land razed, 12,500 buildings destroyed. [22] The port was also devastated and some 350 wrecks lie at the bottom of the sea. [26] Le Havre was liberated by Allied troops on 12 September 1944.

Despite the extensive damage, Le Havre became the location of some of the biggest Replacement Depots, or "Repple Depples" in the European Theatre of Operations in WWII. Thousands of American replacement troops poured in the Cigarette Camps i.e. Philip Morris, Herbert Tareyton, Wings, and Pall Mall Camps, located in the vicinity of the town, before being deployed to combat operations. The port also became key to the Supply and Service Forces operations of the Communications Zone of the U.S. Army. [29]

General Charles de Gaulle visited Le Havre on 7 October 1944. [30] The city received the Legion of Honour on 18 July 1949 for the "heroism with which it has faced its destruction". [30]

In spring 1945, Raoul Dautry of the Ministry of Reconstruction and Urban Development [31] entrusted the project to rebuild the city of Le Havre to Auguste Perret. The city council requested Brunau form part of the planning team, but subsequently he left a short time later due to creative conflicts with Perret. [32] Perret wanted to make a clean sweep of the old structures and apply the theories of structural classicism. The material to be used for the building construction was concrete and the general plan was an orthogonal frame. Officially, the reconstruction was completed in the mid-1960s. [22] [33]

The triangular axis of the Boulevard François I, the Avenue Foch and Rue de Paris led the traveller north, south, east and west of the town centre. The pre-war shopping precinct of Rue de Paris was redesigned with wide footpaths. A surrounding gridiron street system allowed for opened shopping areas, far from the dense and overcrowded crannies of the old. [34] The Place de l’Hotel de Ville, the central square, was lined with 330 apartments around the edge in varying sizes and permitted a 1000-person occupancy. State funds also allowed for the building of high-rise apartments over six blocks leading into the residential areas. These new apartments possessed the latest innovations including central heating. [35] The Avenue Foch stretched 80 metres wide, a little more than the Champs-Élysées in Paris. The finest apartments were built here facing the northern sunlight. Beyond the concrete formations of the inner township stretched the Saint-Francois neighbourhood, made up of red-brick residences and slate rooflines. Aplemont’s three-square-kilometre rebuild consisted of detached housing, double storey terraces and small apartment blocks. A church, community centre and shops also defined the new features. The inclusion of 7.7 square kilometres (3.0 sq mi) of green spaces with parks, gardens and woodlands added to the port’s urban renewal. This equates to an average of 41 square metres of green space per inhabitant, exceptional for any European city of its time. The Museum of Modern Art and the first House of Culture in the region were inaugurated in 1961 by André Malraux. [22] The commune was enlarged through the annexation of Bleville, Sanvic, and Rouelles.

In the 1970s economic difficulties due to de-industrialization saw, for example, the closure of Ateliers et chantiers du Havre (ACH) in 1999 and transformed the trade of the port. 1974 also saw the end of the ocean liner service to New York by the France. The Energy crisis precipitated an industry slump. Since then the city has embarked on a process of restructuring mainly oriented towards the tertiary sector: opening of the University of Le Havre in the 1980s, tourism development, and modernization of the port (Port 2000 project).

UNESCO declared the city centre of Le Havre a World Heritage Site on 15 July 2005 honouring the "innovative utilisation of concrete's potential". The 133-hectare space that represented, according to UNESCO, "an exceptional example of architecture and town planning of the post-war era," is one of the rare contemporary World Heritage Sites in Europe.


Rodolfo Saenz

Through the experiences of being a sharecropper, sailor, father, and landowner, Rodolfo "Rudolph" Saenz has learned the most about education, even though he never passed the sixth grade.

Saenz, along with his parents and five siblings, harvested from land that belonged to someone else.

"It wasn't easy, but it was the only way to survive," Saenz said.

Now in his late 80s, he remembers playing baseball and wrestling with the neighboring children children of all races. The only segregation he recalls at school in Williamson County was the separation of boys and girls.

Saenz's sisters didn’t have formal schooling.

"What they learned was at home," he said. "My sisters had to cook, attend to the house."

Then one day, on what seemed to be an ordinary trip to the post office, Saenz ran into his future bride, Maria Luisa Ortiz.

"She swept me off my feet," Saenz recalled.

They left the post office together and went to the park. Saenz calls the walk to the park their first date. They married in August of 1940, when he was working as a machine operator at Taylor Bedding Co. in Taylor, Texas. He and Maria Luisa eventually had a son and daughter.

But in 1943, at the age of 30, Saenz joined the Navy as a seaman first class, leaving behind 1-year-old Rudy Jr. and 3-month-old Emma. Saenz was stationed in San Diego, Calif., for three weeks, where he trained quickly to be "rushed" out to sea.

"When you go there, you've only got one thing on your mind," he said. "You do the best you can."

Saenz then went to Oregon, where he joined with other sailors on the Havre, a Patrol Craft Escort (PCE 877) commissioned Feb. 14, 1944. Patrol Craft Escorts were frequently used in place of destroyers, which took longer to build. Saenz said his "duty was to escort convoys to war."

Pearl Harbor was his first destination aboard PCE 877. After leaving Pearl Harbor, he left to support the Marines and Army troops in the invasions of Iwo Jima and Okinawa.

As a gunner's mate, it was Saenz's responsibility to assist the boatswain by adjusting the gauge on the depth charge to explode at a given depth whenever the ship's sonar detected a submarine on the screen.

"They were afraid of us because we were faster than they and a good aim with a depth charge [that] could tear them apart and sink them," Saenz recalled.

J.R. Fleming was Saenz's best friend aboard the PCE 877. Saenz described Fleming as a "big tall guy" from Alabama, with the "darkest hair [he'd] ever seen."

"He was good to me and I was good to him," Saenz said. "He was my best friend."

When asked about discrimination aboard the ship, Saenz referred to another Latino sailor, who thought he "got picked on because he was Mexican." Saenz says he disagreed with his assessment because he himself was Latino and "got along great with other shipmates."

"He [the other Hispanic sailor] never combed his hair he would come to duty with his shirt tail hanging out," Saenz said. "That's why they made fun.

"You got to be clean, shaved with a white hat on," he said. "Shirttail hanging out . that don't belong in the Navy."

During Saenz's time on PCE 877, he wanted to learn something to help him when he got out of the service, so he went and spoke to his Captain about learning more about machinery. Due to Saenz's lack of early education, he was told he’d have to do more schooling aboard the ship before he could be trained. Saenz says he declined the offer because he was toward the end of his 14 months of sea duty.

The PCE 877 was one of the many Allied ships present in Tokyo Bay during the Sept. 2, 1945, surrender ceremony.

"One of my proudest moments was standing on my ship looking over on the [USS] Missouri and seeing the Japanese surrender," Saenz recalled. "I was so happy the war was over."

Saenz was discharged from the Navy on Nov.29, 1945, at the rank of Seaman First Class. For his service, he earned a WWII Victory Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, Philippine Liberation Medal, and Philippine Presidential Unit Citation, as well as other honors.

"When I left for the service, I was working with machinery [at the Taylor bedding company] all of the time," Saenz said. "When I came back, they offered me the same old job."

Saenz said he was surprised to learn that he "got paid and promoted with the others, even after being away for two years."

He continued to work at Taylor Bedding full time after the war. Then Kerr-Ban Manufacturing Co offered him another full-time gig. Saenz accepted, but kept his job with Taylor Bedding, working from 8a.m. to 5p.m. with Taylor and then from 5:30p.m. to 2:30 a.m. as a night supervisor with Kerr-Ban.

When he’d go to the bank to cash his check, the bank clerk would shake his head in disbelief.

"Guy at the bank told me, 'I don't know how you do it,'" Saenz recalled. "I told him, 'You can do it, too.'"

The bank teller would respond that those hours would "kill him," recalled Saenz, to which he’d say, "It ain't gonna kill you it didn't kill me!"

When Saenz retired, he bought the 20 acres of land he helped his family sharecrop so many years before.

"I [gave] my children more than I had: an education," he said.

Saenz remembers he and Maria Luisa going to the local bank to apply for an educational loan for their eldest son, Rudy Jr., to attend the University of Texas at Austin, and the banker telling him that they "didn't do that" without giving an explanation why. According to Saenz, the banker then ordered them to "get out.”

"The way he said it hurt me more than anything else," he said.

Rudy Jr. instead received a loan directly from the University of Texas at Austin, and eventually graduated with a degree in engineering, Saenz says.

Saenz and Maria Luisa have worked hard their entire lives to give their seven children the opportunity to receive an education.

"I always worked," he said. "Never dawned on my mind I was working too hard."

The couple started a scholarship in honor of their daughter, Emma, who died in 1990 of breast cancer. The scholarship helps students whose families need a "little hand."

"I'm very proud because of the kids we helped," said Saenz, noting that he keeps in close contact with the current scholarship winner.

Mr. Saenz was interviewed in Taylor, Texas, on March 25, 2003, by his son, Alfred Saenz.


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Former APG commander Maj. Gen. Randy Taylor taking role as temporary consultant to Havre de Grace mayor

Havre de Grace Mayor William T. Martin recently announced several changes to his administrative staff that will take effect next month as city officials prepare to oversee multiple projects that would be funded by the water and sewer bond and federal COVID relief.

The former senior commander of Aberdeen Proving Ground, now-retired Army Maj. Gen. Randy Taylor will serve as a temporary consultant to the mayor. Martin described Taylor as a “very good friend to the City of Havre de Grace” and noted he was a recipient of the key to the city.

Taylor, who led APG from 2017 to 2019 and retired last year after serving as chief of staff for U.S. Strategic Command at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, Nebraska, will support the mayor’s administration starting in late June or early July.

He will come on board as Patrick Sypolt, the current director of administration, makes a lateral move into a new role as director of capital projects.


Havre PCE-877 - History

Images of America: Havre is Miss Emily's latest book showcasing her love of Havre history. Released in June 2015, the book includes pictures and histories of Old Downtown Havre, historic homes, public buildings, churches and schools, people and their activities and other subjects of historic note. Her first book, Images of America: Hill County was written by Miss Emily and her friend and mentor, Lou Lucke. Released in 2009, it contains photographs both old and new along with useful historical information. These books were designed to explain the area's history on their own as well as be perfect companions to other books written about Hill County's diverse and rich history. Images of America: Havre and Hill County are available at select Havre businesses or by calling Miss Emily. As with any task of this magnitude, corrections are a necessary part of the business. Sometimes picture credits need correction and citizens provide more information than previously known. A free sheet of updates for Hill County is available by calling Miss Emily. If you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact Miss Emily so the information can be updated!

Come Visit

From rough and tumble to the refinement of the Montana frontier, our tours tell the complete history of Montana's North Star.

Tours and Season Dates

Historic Havre Strolls are a great way to learn about Havre's fascinating history. We offer Victorian, Craftsman and Eclectic Homes Strolls, an Old Downtown Havre Stroll and a combination Victorian Homes/Old Downtown Stroll at various times throughout the year please check back for tour dates, times and options offered. The first four Stroll options are $10.00 each for adults, children 6-12 are $5.00 each and children under 5 are free with accompanying adult. The Combination Stroll is $15.00 each for adults, $7.00 for children 6-12 and under 5 are free with accompanying adult. All tours are conducted weather permitting. Meet us at our Headquarters at the historic Mathews home at 124 Third Street or historic Boone/Dalrymple home, Havre's oldest home, at 132 Third Street, across from the Post Office, to begin and end your journey into our exciting past!

We also offer seasonal tours which include a light meal and refreshments. We encourage you to check the About Us section for these exclusive and elegant offerings.

History Among the Headstones Tours at Highland and Calvary Cemeteries are a big hit! Our current Tours include The Sampler, Notable Citizens, Hill County Centennial, Interesting Hill County Women and Tragedy and Tears. Due to the nature of cemetery tours, they may be unsuitable for young children or those sensitive to human tragedy. Those taking the tours are advised that they span the entire length of Highland and Calvary Cemeteries and include walking over uneven ground. Cost is $10.00 for each adult, children 6-12 are $5.00 each, and children under 5 are free with accompanying adult. Tours are conducted weather permitting.

We are the first historic site in Havre that takes Canadian currency at par-all season, every season! Restrictions may apply please call for details.

We are proud to be a Blue Star Museum! This initiative, sponsored by the National Endowment for the Arts, allows active military personnel and their families to visit museums throughout the United States free of charge. We honor this offer for all of our tours all season long.

Please note there are no public restroom facilities on site, and the Historic Havre Strolls and History Among the Headstones Tours have no seating available. Tours of the High Line Heritage House Museum are indefinitely suspended, due to preservation, restoration and rehabilitation work being planned. We apologize for the inconvenience and welcome you to visit in the future, at such time when the home will be taken from eyesore to eye candy!

We reserve the right to adjust our tour times and rates, or cancel our tours at any time, with or without notice.

Research Services

Miss Emily offers research services at a competitive rate. Her research skills and knowledge of local history have assisted fellow authors with their successful publications, and have helped people who are seeking information about buildings, businesses and people.


Living History

Havre’s Tourism Committee would like to give people the opportunity to learn about Havre’s History by experiencing it. Havre locals will bring historical attractions to life for its annual “LIVING HISTORY”.

Tour the grandest and once largest military post in Montana and the U.S., Fort Assinniboine. Check out the display of hides and guns. Each hour a cannon shot will be fired by the Bullhook Bottoms Black Powder Club. Grab lunch in the Historical Hop Room and step aboard for a special tour given on the Black Jack Wagon. A discounted rate of $5.00 per adult and $3.00 for 18 and under is being offered for the day. A very special event is offered this year, starting at 4pm an Old Time Dance will be held. Dinner and a no host bar is offered while learning dances from the past. Cost is $20 individual and $35 a couple.

Havre Beneath the Streets underground tours come to life on Living History Day. This day allows one to take the tour and see the Old West at its best in the Sporting Eagle Saloon. Shop at Gourley Brothers Bakery and purchase a tasty homemade pastry made fresh. Hungry from your tour, receive a meat sample from Havre's Meat Market. Have a sweet tooth, get your choice of old fashion penny candy available to buy at Holland and Son Mercantile. Saturday's tours will start at 9am, will run every half hour and catch the last tour at 4pm. Appointments for tours are welcomed. A special tour rate of $8.00 a person will be available.

Head on up to the Buffalo Jump and take a walk back in history. The Wahkpa Chu’gn Buffalo Jump is a one of a kind experience. This historical jump is the only one where you will view artifacts in their natural state. The Buffalo Jump tours will take place from 9am-4pm.

The H. Earl Clack Museum will bring history to life by recreating your heritage with hands on events. This hands on history event will be offered for Free from 1pm – 3 pm. The museum will be open its regular hours to tour from 11am-5pm. The H. Earl Clack Museum is also member of the “Dinosaur Trail”


Holland & Bonine Funeral Home

We believe that funerals are meaningful events and should be carefully planned.
The funeral offers your family and our community the opportunity to express
feelings and memories, and to celebrate a life.

Holland & Bonine is dedicated to providing services to the families of Havre and the Hi-Line with care and compassion.

We serve every family in our community with great pride. We are able to offer a wide range of services to meet your families needs and customs.


Watch the video: Le Havre 1912