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At the Battle of Tours near Poitiers, France, Frankish leader Charles Martel, a Christian, defeats a large army of Spanish Moors, halting the Muslim advance into Western Europe. Abd-ar-Rahman, the Muslim governor of Cordoba, was killed in the fighting, and the Moors retreated from Gaul, never to return in such force.
Charles was the illegitimate son of Pepin, the powerful mayor of the palace of Austrasia and effective ruler of the Frankish kingdom. After Pepin died in 714 (with no surviving legitimate sons), Charles beat out Pepin’s three grandsons in a power struggle and became mayor of the Franks. He expanded the Frankish territory under his control and in 732 repulsed an onslaught by the Muslims.
Victory at Tours ensured the ruling dynasty of Martel’s family, the Carolingians. His son Pepin became the first Carolingian king of the Franks, and his grandson Charlemagne carved out a vast empire that stretched across Europe.
Battle of Tours
After Zama Rome's empire spread across the entire Mediterranean world. In 200 years Rome stretched his borders from the Nile to the Thames. Roman power and glory climaxed just before and during the life of Christ under the first emperor Augustus Caesar and his son Tiberius. However, the Caesar dynasty collapsed thirty years later. Tiberius' vengeful, self-absorbed, and ineffective descendant Nero incited a military revolt in A.D. 68.
After the death of Nero, Rome began a slow decline. Occasionally, strong emperors like Hadrian and Constantine would manage to stop, or even reverse the decline. However, centuries of barbarian attacks, corruption, and ineffective emperors finally culminated in A.D. 410, when an army of Goths sacked the city of Rome, the first invaders to do so in 700 years. Although Rome managed to hold onto some shadows of its former power and territory until A.D. 476, the intervening 66 years were little more than the death rattle of the mightiest empire in history.
After A.D.476 the fates of Eastern and Western Europe made a major split. The eastern half of the old Roman empire, ruled from the massive city of Constantinople on the Hellespont, remained fairly peaceful and stable for more than a century. Western Europe, however, fell into what is now called the Dark Age. The tribes that had defeated Rome began fighting each other for control the region, with none ever truly gaining supremacy. This pattern continued in western Europe for more than 200 years.
Outside of Europe, however, time marched on. In A.D.632 Mohammad died. His followers soon began a bloody military campaign to bring Islam to all corners of the earth. They met with unprecedented success early on. In less than a century the Arabs took Egypt, Israel, Syria, Persia, North Africa, and Spain. This was not enough, however, and the Omayyad Caliphs soon began considering further conquests. The Byzantine Empire and India were too strong to overthrow, but the 'barbarian' kingdoms of western Europe appeared ripe for invasion.
In A.D.721 a first attempt to invade the lands north of Spain was quickly defeated by Duke Odo of Aquitaine. The Muslims returned, however, in A.D.732, with an army of 80,000 men. Odo was crushed and the Muslim invasion swept through France, burning, looting, and raping. While the Arabs cut a bloody swathe through southern France, Odo fled to Paris, which was the capital of the Frankish tribes. There he made a protection deal with the Palace-Mayor of the Franks, a man named Charles Martel.
Charles was no stranger to war. Born the illegitimate son of the earlier Palace-Mayor Pippin in A.D. 686, Charles had to fight to secure his position. He had been imprisoned in 714, escaped to exile in late 715, and began a civil war that culminated three years later. After his victory at over his rivals at the battle of Soissons Charles seized the rank of Palace-Mayor. This title was important because, while the Franks had a king, the Palace-Mayor was the person with the real political power.
Charles spent the next several years expanding Frankish power and keeping an eye of developments in Muslim Spain. He realized he would need well trained and heavily armed men to repel any Muslim invasion. This would be very expensive, however, and the Franks didn't have the funds to spare. To get the money Charles took an extremely controversial step. He seized Church lands and used the money to fund the training of a 30,000 man army. This action left him with a force more powerful than any seen in western Europe since the days of the Caesars. It also nearly got him excommunicated. However, Charles managed to -barely- avoid that disastrous outcome.
As A.D.732 dragged on, the Muslims began acquiring a vast amount of stolen treasure from the cities and monasteries they had devastated. Looking to increase this hoard, they then turned towards the monastery at Tours, reputed to be the richest in France. Charles anticipated this, however, and marched his army to Tours. He took back roads to avoid detection.The move paid-off handsomely when the Arabs were taken by surprise to find the Frankish army waiting for them on a wooded hill near Tours in early October.
For seven days neither side moved. The Muslims hoped the Christians would come to attack them on the plain below the hill. Charles knew such a move would be suicide and stayed in his strong defensive position. Finally, winter broke the deadlock. Charles and his northmen were prepared for the oncoming cold, but the Muslim commander Abd er Rahman knew his men were not. The only way to winter quarters was through the Frankish army, so on the seventh day Rahman ordered a full-scale attack. The spiritual and political future of Europe was about to be decided.
Franks- The Frankish army was composed almost entirely of infantry. These men were farmers Charles had whipped into fighting shape over the previous months and years. They were better armored and armed than their Muslim counterparts. The signature Frankish weapon was a short throwing axe called the Francisca . The Francisca had only a short range, but it could go through any armor in the world. Their training had hardened them and their do-or-die situation would undoubtedly drive to fight even harder. However, they were outnumbered nearly 3-to-1 and facing a fierce and undefeated enemy with far superior cavalry. The future of Christianity looked grim.
Moors- The Moorish army was composed of Muslims from North Africa and Spain. They were mostly unarmored and carried spears and scimitars. Cavalry victories at Adrianople (A.D.378) and Ad Decimum (A.D.533) had left horsemen the dominant unit of the day, and the Moors had thousands of cavalry. They used this fact to devastating effect, outmaneuvering and destroying their infantry-based enemies in Spain and southern France. The Frank's excellent choice of battlefield had reduced some Moorish advantages, but Abd er Rahman still held a 50,000 man numerical superiority and his men were inflamed with Islamic fervor. Despite not properly scouting the enemy or the terrain, it still looked as though the Moors would break through and take the Koran to all corners of Europe at the point of a sword.
The Battle- The exact details of the battle of Tours are still unknown. The two main sources of information from the Dark Ages, Christian monks and Muslim scribes, either hyped the battle beyond all reasonable proportions or severely downplayed it. For example, some Christian sources have Arab casualty figures in the hundreds of thousands over the course of a seven day struggle. On the other hand, what little Muslim material exists mostly concentrates on excusing the outcome of the battle.
Regardless of the shortage of hard evidence, some basic facts about the battle are generally agreed on by historians:
- The Franks were considerably outnumbered by the Moors.
- The Franks fromed a square at the top of a wooded hill.
- The Muslims attacked that square.
- The Franks didn't break.
- The Muslims didn't stop attacking.
- Scouts from Charles infiltrated the Muslim camp and began freeing prisoners and treasure.
- Moors began sneaking back to their camp to protect their loot, and the trickle quickly became a flood.
- Abd er Rahman attempted to stop the mass desertion/retreat, but was surrounded and killed.
- The Moorish army never reorganized and fled back to Spain, abandoning all their stolen treasure and slaves.
Charles was hailed as the savior of Christendom for his stunning victory at Tours. The Church VERY quickly forgot his earlier offenses. His men named him 'The Hammer'. The Frankish Palace-Mayor became an 8th-century rock star.
Charles would continue to attack Muslim holdings in southern France for the remainder of his life. Under his rule the Franks would continuously rise in power in France. Under his son Pippin, the Franks continued that tradition. Charles' grandson eventually conquered and ruled France, Germany, and northern Italy. The grandson became so powerful he abandoned the title of Palace-Mayor and had the Pope crown him Emperor of Rome. The grandson's name was Charlemagne. He would become known as the greatest ruler of the Dark Ages.
The effects of the battle of Tours were not confined to the rise of one family's political fortunes, however. The expulsion of Islam from northern Europe allowed for nearly everything good in modern Western culture to grow and thrive. Without Islam, science, based on the idea of a logical and orderly universe, was reborn in western monasteries. Without Islam, chivalry, the idea that is the bedrock of western social thought and based on gender equality, grew and thrived. Principles of the Rule of Law, music, and art were all preserved to flourish later. Charlemagne's empire, the Holy Roman Empire, gave the west a level of stability not seen for centuries. That stability allowed the peoples of Europe to begin rebuilding their civilization. In short, Tours saved the Western World.
Early records show that the Turones, a pre-Roman Gallic people, settled on the right bank of the Loire River. The Romans moved the settlement across the river and called it Caesarodunum, but from the 5th century it was known as Civitas Turonorum. The settlement was evangelized in the mid-3rd century by the early Christian ecclesiastic and missionary Gatien, who founded the bishopric. The Christian community remained small, however, until the second half of the 4th century, when St. Martin, the great apostle of the Gauls, was persuaded to become their bishop. A magnificent basilica was raised above his tomb in the late 5th century, and for hundreds of years it attracted pilgrims to Tours.
When the town became part of the Frankish dominion under Clovis I (reigned 481/482–511), Clovis accepted for himself and his successors the title of canon of St. Martin. At the end of the 6th century the bishopric was held by St. Gregory of Tours, who had an abbey built around St. Martin’s basilica. The abbey grew immensely rich. The emperor Charlemagne (reigned 768–814) reestablished discipline in the monastery and developed the intellectual life under the English scholar Alcuin. After pillaging incursions by the Normans, a protective wall was built around the St. Martin’s district, which 400 years later was united to the borough of Tours, when a common wall was built around both Tours and Châteauneuf (originally St. Martin’s district and known as Martinopolis).
At a point somewhere between Tours and Poitiers is the site of the Battle of Tours. There, in 732, Charles Martel, master of the Frankish kingdom, defeated Moorish invaders from Spain in a battle that proved to be the turning point in the advance of Islam into western Europe. The battle is believed by some historians to have been fought at Moussais-la-Bataille, 6 miles (10 km) southwest of Châtellerault.
Tours continued to maintain its prosperity in the Middle Ages in spite of involvement in the strife between the French and English kings in the 12th century and later during the Hundred Years’ War (1337–1453). In 1462 Louis XI established a civic council and a silk industry that thrived for more than a century. The emigration of Huguenots (a Protestant group) after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) resulted in industrial decline. During the French Revolution of the late 18th century, the town was a base for operations against the royalist Vendée rebels. During World War II the French government had its headquarters in Tours from June 13 to 15, 1940, and British statesman Winston Churchill met French premier Paul Reynaud there in a vain attempt to dissuade France from negotiating an armistice with Germany. In the 1944 bombardments that preceded the German retreat and the liberation, one-fourth of the city was destroyed.
The Hammer Enters the Fray
Charles Martel was a seasoned ruler and a battle hardened veteran. His troops were equally experienced having been in constant clashes along the eastern borders of their kingdom, fighting neighboring tribes.
Charles also understood how important the situation was and began gathering his levies from all over the north. And he would show his shrewdness as a battle commander, when he carefully understood the intentions of his enemy.
Meanwhile, the Umayyad forces moved slowly across the Frankish lands, their forces spread into war parties that ravaged the countryside and amassed an enormous amount of plunder. This “greedy” focus on war booty would greatly influence their future undoing. They had to take their time, as they greatly depended on the crop season for their food source.
But their destination was clear to Charles Martel. It was the rich city of Tours - prominent and wealthy, filled with abbeys of great importance. Thus, Charles placed his Frankish forces directly on the path of the coming Umayyads. He situated his army roughly in between the city of Tours and the ravaged town of Poitiers further south.
The Franks were placed close to the confluence of rivers Clain and Vienne, on a slightly elevated and forested hill. Charles Martel deliberately and shrewdly chose this position. First of all - he was outnumbered and knew it.
Map of the Battle of Tours with the position of Charles Martel's army. (Evzen M / Public Domain )
Thus he chose the cover of the forest to displace his troops and hide his number in hope to not reveal his disadvantage. Secondly - he chose a place where the Umayyads would have to enter into battle, as the only crossing over the rivers was behind the Frankish forces. Thirdly - the forest protected his troops - mainly the second lines - from the full brunt of a cavalry charge, and somewhat protected his sides from flanking attacks.
When the Umayyads approached the assembled Christian army, their leader Abdul Rahman al Ghafiqi - also a seasoned commander - knew that Charles Martel took the upper hand, by choosing his preferred place of battle. Even so, al Ghafiqi trusted in his strength and deployed for battle.
One thing he must have noticed is the difference in the troops - Umayyads relied heavily on cavalry, while the Franks were mostly footmen. But he failed to take several things into account.
The Muslim cavalry was lightly armored - they preferred to adorn themselves with chainmail and not much else in terms of armor. Riches and trinkets were much more to their liking.
They also rode willful Arabic horses, which were difficult to break in, and thus not the truly perfect cavalry mounts. Some historians also mention that this cavalry was in large part armed with spears - which were unseasoned and would break on first impact.
The Muslim cavalry rode willful Arabic horses during the Battle of Tours. (Trzęsacz / Public Domain )
On the other hand, the Frankish infantry was thoroughly seasoned. Most of the army were veterans, with only a small part of fresh recruits reserved in the second lines. They were well armored for the time, and well-armed as well. They stood packed in tight lines and ready for a cavalry charge.
But the battle did not begin immediately. The opposing forces “tested the waters”, with sporadic small skirmishes going on for seven days.
This was in truth a deliberate stalling from al Ghafiqi, who waited for his whole army to assemble fully. In the end, with the Umayyads fearing the approaching winter, they commenced battle on the seventh day - on the 10th of October 732 AD.
Historians still argue whether the Arabs went into Gaul as a raiding party or a full-fledged invasion. If the latter is to be believed then it wouldn’t be a stretch to say that Charles’ actions changed the entire fate of European history. Had the Muslims broken through and conquered the Frankish Kingdom they would have then had land access to the Italian Peninsula and the Papacy if they could break through the Lombards. Not only that but if they managed to subdue the Germanic tribes there was a possibility the Umayyad Caliphate would encircle the Byzantine Empire on both sides, cutting off much of their land trade routes.
Beyond that is the religion of the region, as with Spain, it’s likely the region would have become Islamic under the rule of the Muslims, and with the region subdued, there would have been less major powers to reconquer the area and bring them to be to Christianity, as with the Reconquista. This would lead to a complete shift in European history as we know it.
AD 732, Battle of Tours: Charles Martel the ‘Hammer’ preserves Western Christianity
Few Empires emerged as quickly as that of the Muslim Caliphates. Bursting out from what is now Saudi Arabia in the mid-7 th century, the Islamic Caliphate expanded outward in all directions.
Early on they won a crushing victory over the long established Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Yarmouk and swept westward across northern Africa. Eventually, they would cross the Strait of Gibraltar, defeat the Visigoths and seize Spain.
The Muslim conquests were not inherently about religion, especially seeing as the conquerors allowed freedom of religion in conquered territories, but their presence and culture was a direct threat to Western Christianity.The rapid spread of the Empire
Similar to how the Vikings targeted churches for loot, so did the conquering Muslims. Furthermore, over time many of the people conquered by the Muslims adopted their religion.
The Muslims in Spain began threatening modern day France, by the early 8 th century.
Spain had been under the rule of the Visigoths, the descendants of the men who sacked Rome, but they were unable to put up much of a fight and the Islamic Caliphate had no setbacks until they met Odo of Aquitaine. He won a victory at the Battle of Toulouse that temporarily halted the previously unstoppable force, and is sometimes held up as being equally important as the later battle of Tours.
Though Toulouse was a setback for the Muslim conquest of France, they would still conduct raids for the next decade. While the Muslims focused on raids, Charles Martel focused on building an army to unify and strengthen the Frankish people.
The Franks used heavy axes and swords, but also wielded spears to effectively counter cavalry.
Odo of Aquitaine had recently suffered defeats and pleaded to Charles for help against the invading Muslims. Charles agreed to the stipulation that Odo submit to Frankish authority. A Frankish power was growing steadily stronger under Charles, and the Caliphate had no real idea of what they would find when they decided to venture north with a stronger army.
The Franks and The Muslims under the Umayyad Caliphate would meet in northeastern France in October of 732. Charles Martel, commander of the Franks, who were largely infantry based, and likely equal in number to the Muslim army, would fight General Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, who commanded the Umayyad army that had a large amount of cavalry.
Charles’ force was well trained and fought with the equipment and close order style that echoed the hoplite formations of the ancient Greeks. He occupied an elevated position and used the trees and rough terrain in front of his infantry to protect them from cavalry charges.
A Western knight fighting against an Arabian horseman. Illustration from the 19th century.
The first several days resulted in several skirmishes with no clear winner. Charles had adopted a defensive position while Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi was quite frankly (pun intended) surprised by the presence of such a large force.
Reinforcements arrived for the Muslims, but Charles had arguably better reinforcements. Many of his veterans, who had personally fought under him came in huge numbers. These professional fighting men would have been amongst the best and most experienced in all Europe. Their arrival meant that the main battle was at hand after a week of skirmishing.
The Muslims had a tried and true method of wearing down the enemy with light cavalry peppering and repeated heavy cavalry charges. With no real reason to try something different, ‘Abd-al-Raḥmân’s cavalry crashed into the Frankish formations who stood firm like “A Bulwark of Ice” according to later Muslim accounts. Frankish troops withstood the attacks and lashed out hard whenever the experienced troops saw an opportunity.
Deep into the fighting (perhaps into a second day according to some sources) The cavalry broke into a Frankish formation and towards Charles. His guard, and perhaps Charles himself, entered the fray. Several Frankish scouts were sent at the same time to raid the enemy camp, causing havoc and freeing prisoners.
The Muslims feared for the safety of their booty, obtained during the campaign and many rushed back to the camp. This was seen as a full retreat by many other members of the Muslim army and an actual full retreat soon followed. ‘Abd-al-Raḥmân valiantly attempted to rally his troops but was killed in the fighting as the victorious Franks swarmed upon their retreating foes.
A fictionalized painted showing both commanders mounted Charles on the left and ‘Abdul Al-Rahman on the right.
The degree to which the Muslims were defeated can be inferred by the following events. The survivors retreated to their camp where they fled in the middle of the night, carrying mostly their prized loot. The next morning, Charles was deeply concerned that his enemies were setting up an ambush, trying to get him to march downhill to more open fields.
After extensive scouting, it was discovered that the enemy had fled. This would point to the battle surely being a great victory, but not a crushing one as Charles still had to fear a possible ambush. Also, most casualties in battle come after one side starts to retreat, but in this case, it was a victorious infantry army chasing down a largely cavalry based army, so there were likely plenty of Muslim survivors.
Estimates are that the Muslims lost around 8-10,000 compared to roughly 1,000 for the Franks. Though not a crushing victory it was a definite turning point for the push of Islam into Europe. The battle was unequivocally lost, and a great general was lost by the Ummayids.
They had become overextended and would eventually be forced to withdraw back into Spain. Charles was granted the nickname of Charles “the Hammer” for crushing his enemies and both he and Odo, who had won the first great victory and served at Tours, would be considered heroes of Christianity.
Charles would go on to establish the Frankish kingdom, and his family line would produce such greats as Charlemagne.
The Battle Of Tours 732 Ad History Essay
The Battle of Tours ( Battle of Poitiers ) happened on October 10, 732, it was fought by the Frankish leader Charles Martel and the other side was a Muslim ground forces who ‘s leader was Emir Abdul Rahman AI Ghafiqi Abd Al Rahman.
It happened near metropolis of Tours, France.
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The Franks had defeated the Islamic ground forces and besides Emir Abd er Rahman was killed. The conflict had stopped the progress towards North of Islam from the Iberian Peninsula.
One clip the Islamic was infesting the old remains of the Roman and Iranian Empires. Estimates one of the Frankish ground forces was supporting Gaul different in size.
They say the deceases were 15,000 and 75,000. In St.Denis were approximately 1,500. The Muslims lost between 60,000 and 400,000 horse.
The Islamic ground forces is really difficult to gauge in size, because it was normally broken into busting parties, the whole Muslim ground forces was at Tours and Abd er Rahman waited for six yearss to get down the conflict.
On the 7th twenty-four hours the conflict began and both ground forcess had the strength, the Muslims in North of Spain overran Septimania, and made a capital at Narbonne they called it Arbuna.
Duke Odo of Auqitaine besides called Eudes the Great had won a little battle 721 in the Battle of Toulouse but the Arabs kept busting.
At 725 they went far as metropolis of Autun in Burgundy, the Muslims were attacked by the Arabs and the Franks, in 730 Eudes made Alliess with Uthman ibn Naissa, who was called Munuza by the Frankish.
Uthman was given Eudes ‘s girl Lampade for matrimony to do an armistice, but the following twelvemonth after that Uthman rebelled against the governer of al-Andalus.
Duke Eudes ( was called male monarch by some ) , brought his ground forces in Bordeaux, but the ground forces had lost, when they lost Christians were slaughtered at the River Garrone.
Muslim equestrians was destroyed, Duke Eudes asked the Franks for aid, in 732 the Arabians moved their force and was traveling to north to River Loire.
The Gaul opposition ran out of supplies so they were destroyed, the Arabian splits into busting parties because they were running out of supplies they looted Gaul.
Charles Martel was in defensive signifier in the conflict.
The conflict of Tourss # 6
The Franks had good vesture for the cold and that gave them an advantage, Arabs were non ready for the cold and did n’t desire to assail.
The Arabs wanted to come out into the unfastened and the Franks was doing a tight defence, so the war became a waiting conflict and Charles Martel had won.
On the 7th twenty-four hours the battle began, because Abd er Rahman did n’t desire to travel the conflict to another clip, Abd er Rahman thought his high quality of the horse was good plenty.
The conflict of Tourss # 7
The Muslim ground forces trusted that the horse would give a advantage, the horse had won in old conflicts, medival foot fought with the horse.
The horse broke up but the Frankish did n’t interrupt, the conflict might hold been different but the Muslims were still under control.
Some people said on the 2nd twenty-four hours the Frankish lookouts raided the cantonment and the supply, a large portion of the ground forces went back to the cantonment to salvage their supplies and it seemed to be like a retreat so after that it became a retreat.
The conflict of Tourss # 8
When Abd er Rahman was seeking to acquire back the order of his work forces, who had abled to interrupt inside the defence, Abd er Rahman was killed by acquiring surrounded by the Frankish ground forces.
Besides the Arab ground forces were pushed back south over the Pyrenees, Charles got his nickname Martel, Martel meant cock, Charles Martels was able to drive the Muslims from France.
When the Muslim ground forces trusted the horsemen/cavalry that they would give an advantage they would of idea that because in other conflicts they would win.
After the conflict of Tourss
AFTer the conflict of Tourss
736, the Cailiphate tried to occupy once more, but this clip they tried by sea, it was ordered by Abdul Rahman ‘s boy, they started in Narbonne in 736 and so took Arles.
In 736, Charles took back Montfrin and Avignon, and Arles and Aix-en-Provence with some aid of Liutprand, King of Lombards, Nimes, Agde, and Beziers, He smashed a Muslim force at the River Berre.
They went to confront the chief invasion at Narbonne, he defeated a mighty host, it was the first clip for him to utilize heavy horse, he defeated the Muslim ground forces but he failed to acquire back the metropolis he was besides outnumbered when he stroked.
After the conflict of Tourss # 2
Charles was a superb strategic general, at 736-737 he destroyed Muslim bases in Gaul, Charles failed to take back Narbonne in 737.
The Cit was defended by Muslims, Arabs and Christian Visigoth citizens, Pippin the short got power and needed to acquire the metropolis to give up, in 759, so he would seek to drive the Arabs back to Iberia, and convey Narbonne back and into the Frankish.
His Grandson, Charlamagne, so became the first Christian as a swayer, in the east Peninsula Frankish emperors the Pyrenees where today is Catalonia, they reconquered Girona in 785 and besides Barcelona in 801.
Arabians spread Islam to the Middle East, North Africa, and besides Iberia, and they did this in a truly short clip, they so began to distribute as far west to Span and Portugal and east in Central Asia and besides the Southwest Pacific.
Mohammed died in 632 and he died with a really interesting conflict in history, the Arab folk spread hurriedly so it became a major faith of the universe and the most common in from North Africa to Central Asia.
Islam was spread by blade, the Arabs were attacked by two strong empires the Byzantine and Sasanian Persian, the Arabs needed 8 old ages to suppress Syria and besides 7 old ages to suppress Iraq.
They took Egypt 2 old ages, Moors got Spain and Portugal in 5 old ages, the Arabs went to Central Asia and Indian subcontinent, the Islam spread into Middle East and it was accomplished by the Arab winning Byzantine Empire.
Arabians went through sanctum land and Mesopotamia, by forcing back the Byzatines, Arab armies got weakened by contending Byzantine Empire.
The Arabs destroyed larger Iranian ground forcess, the Arabs first got control of Mesopotamia so they took over Persia, so Arab brought in Islam into Egypt, Arabs conquered most of Egypt, Arab general Amr ibn Al Aas was given bid by Mohammed, he brought a ground forces of 4,000 equestrians.
They were all armed with spears, blades, and besides bows, Amr ‘s mission was to assail the fortress of Babylon ( Bab al Yun )
Babylon was the antonym of the island of Rawdah in the Nile River at the highest point of Delta to Alexandria it was hazardous but the Arab ‘s ground forces supports came and made the Arab ground forces to hold more work forces.
Byzantine ‘s ground forces could be able to retreat, Amr brought his ground forces to Alexandria but the governer chose to give up and non assail the ground forces.
Then the Arab ground forces went to North Africa, and they succeeded once more The emperor of Byzantine ( Leo III ) in 718, made Arab lose a conflict and lose a district.
Moors got most of the Iberian Peninsula but so after he was defeated by a Frankish ground forces and Charles Martel in bid near Tours in 732.
Then Moors gave up South of the Pyrenees.
The Muslim ground forcess after they got Persia went to Central Asia, ( 651 ) the Arab ground forces fought against Turkic Tribes in Central Asia, Islam got the Indus vale in the eighth century.
Islam so went to India Sub-continent in India there was no conquest ground forcess and India was already established good with spiritual beliefs.
Islam was brought to Coastal India so began to make Malaysia and Indonesia. The Arabs did n’t command coastal India, because India was a unfastened society.
The Arab bargainers were non allowed to work in India, Arab bargainers made markets more to the E, really they merely went east to merchandise but it turned into sharing faith.
They built merchandising ports in Malaysia, trading happened at that place because Chinese points came from North, East Asian ships to Arab or Indian ships possibly Europe to.
Traders at that clip needed to hold arms and armour.
Islam Spreading and Battles
Islam Spreading and Battles
Islam spread truly fast and truly far, in the yesteryear, the Battle of Tours in 732, the Battle of Tours Islam leader Abd er Rahman was really considered a bad general/leader.
The map of all the conquered topographic points by Islam
Islam Spreading and Battles
It was besides astonishing how Charles Martel got back so many metropoliss with his ground forces and so finally defeated the Arab and Islam ground forcess.
The Islam and Arab were defeated
by Abd Er Rahman acquiring
Islam Spreading and Battles
Islam was spread quickly in a short clip so it sort of seemed like the Islamic people and Arabs were sort of like the “ Strongest at the clip when they conquered all the metropoliss, states, etc.
What is a shame about this what if, is that it is so unknown outside of historical circles that it needs an adequate introduction before it can be explained.
The year is 732, and for decades the Umayyad Islamic conquerors have been marauding across Spain and Portugal. Their expansion has been ferocious and they have met little resistance from the local populations. With every passing day, another city, town and village falls to the Arab invaders, with only a pocket of Christian resistance on the Northern Coast of Spain. Since they landed in Gibralter in 711, the Umayyads had been content on conquering Hispania, however they now turn their attention to the fertile lands of France.
Charles Martel (Leader of the Franks) has summoned warriors from across the continent, in an attempt to make a final stand. His calls are well answered and thousands of christian men now stand shoulder to shoulder in a muddy field in Southern France ready to fight and die for their religion and their continent.
Historically, that day was won by Charles Martel (later known as ‘The Hammer’) and his Christian army, comprising of Spaniards, French, English, German and Italian warriors.This is often considered to be first major defeat that the Umayyad army suffered since their invasion of Hispania began. What is more interesting however is that this is the battle that halted their advances. Which of course brings me to my question…
What if Charles Martel had lost the battle of Tours?
Had Charles Martel last at the battle of Tours, Europe would be an altogether very different place than it is now. The Umayyad army would have continued its ferocious march northwards and would very likely have made their deep into the French heartlands. What must be remembered about the Middle Ages is that their belief in the intervention of God was very real and very frequent. Therefore it stands to reason that (as in Spain) the Christian population of conquered France would have seen their defeat as a sign God no longer favoured the Christians and would have converted en mass to Islam. The successes of the Umayyad invasion of France would have no doubt led to more Arab fortune seekers and settlers immigrating to the regions taken and thus the very demographics of the areas would have changed. I have reason to believe this is likely thanks again to what took place in Spain during their occupation. The southern region of Spain (the region under Arab rule the longest) developed a unique culture about it unseen in Northern Spain. This culture, Andalusian, is a result of cultural exchange between the native Visigoth people and the Arab/Berber invaders.
I feel comfortable asserting that had Charles Martel lost at Tours in 732, Southern France at the very least and the entire French region at the most would have been under Islamic rule. For how long? It is impossible to say, as the further one delves into alternative history, the more variables need to be considered. Would the Frankish population risen up and resisted Arab rule? Would the rest of Christian Europe unite and again attempt to push the Umayyads out of France? Perhaps the momentum of the invasions would have continued and led to the Islamification of Western Europe?
Charles Martel’s victory halted Islamic expansion in Western Europe and it is often argued allowed for the beginning of the Reconquista (the Christians of North Spain retaking the land to the South). His victory (and Survival) also allowed for one of Europe’s most renowned leaders to take his place in history, Martel’s own grandson Charlemagne.
That Europe’s cultural, religious and linguistic heritage potentially lay in the result of one battle over a thousand years ago that the majority of people haven’t even heard of is a terrific way to show just how interesting historical What ifs can be.
Battle Of Tours Essay
The first wave of Muslim expansion into Iberia, present-day Spain and Portugal, began in 711 during the reign of the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik. Led by a Berber commander, Tariq ibn al-Ziyad, this expedition landed in Gibraltar and was followed by further Muslim expansion and the foundation of an Umayyad dominion in Iberia, centered in the city of Córdoba. The Muslims were able to overcome the small states that existed in Iberia because of the fractured nature of Iberian Christendom. In 730 the Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik appointed a new governor, Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi, of the Iberian Muslim state, known in Arabic as al-Andalus.
Despite their religious differences, some Muslim and Christian rulers signed treaties with one another and formed alliances in order to further their political goals. In 721 the army of Eudes, Christian duke of Aquitaine, defeated an Umayyad invasion force at Toulouse. However Muslim incursions into France continued, reaching as far north as the province of Burgundy by the mid-720s. Eudes formed an alliance with Uthman ibn Naissa, the Berber ruler of Catalonia, and when Uthman rebelled against Abd al-Rahman, he was dragged into a conflict with the Umayyads. After defeating Uthman’s forces, Abd alRahman began to campaign against Eudes, defeating him in a fierce battle near the city of Bordeaux and the Garonne River.
Desperate for aid, Eudes turned toward the Carolingian Frankish ruler Charles Martel, agreeing to submit to his authority. Charles, son of Pippin the Middle and mayor of the Palace and ruler of the Frankish realms of Austrasia, moved his infantry army south to intercept Abd al-Rahman and tens of thousands of Muslim cavalrymen heading toward the monastery of St. Martin in Tours.
In October 732 Charles positioned the Frankish army, which was made up entirely of armored infantrymen equipped with heavy shields and long spears, between the Muslim invasion force and the monastery of St. Martin. Abd al-Rahman’s army, which was made up entirely of Arab and Berber cavalry, met the Franks near Tours and the two sides scouted one another’s positions and skirmished for nearly a week before commencing battle on the seventh day. Abd al-Rahman’s army was the larger of the two. The Frankish infantry formed into a tightly grouped phalanx and managed to repel successive Muslim cavalry charges throughout the day. Late in the battle Abd al-Rahman was killed while trying to rally waning Muslim forces and his army halted their attacks. With a substantial amount of captured treasure from their campaign in southern France, the Muslims decided to withdraw south back toward Iberia. In later campaigns, Charles continued to push the Iberian Muslims back across the Pyrenees Mountains and out of France.
Scholars, including the 18th century English historian Edward Gibbon, saw Charles’s victory as a landmark moment in history when a Christian ruler halted Muslim forces from advancing farther into western Europe and establishing an Islamic state there. Because of his defeat of a much larger Muslim force, Charles was given the nickname Martel or “The Hammer” and continued to expand Carolingian power throughout France and Germany. His grandson Charlemagne would rule over a Frankish empire as one of the most powerful Christian rulers in Europe.
The Battle of Tours, 732
Near the river Owar [Loire], the two great hosts of the two languages and the two creeds were set in array against each other. The hearts of [Muslim leader] Abderrahman, his captains and his men were filled with wrath and pride, and they were the first to begin to fight. The Moslem horsemen dashed fierce and frequent forward against the battalions of the Franks, who resisted manfully, and many fell dead on either side, until the going down of the sun.
Night parted the two armies, but in the gray of the morning the Muslims returned to the battle. Their cavaliers had soon hewn their way into the center of the Christian host. But many of the Moslems were fearful for the safety of the spoil which they had stored in their tents, and a false cry arose in their ranks that some of the enemy were plundering the camp whereupon several squadrons of the Moslem horsemen rode off to protect their tents. But it seemed as if they fled and all the host was troubled.
And while Abderrahman strove to check their tumult, and to lead them back to battle, the warriors of the Franks came around him, and he was pierced through with many spears, so that he died. Then all the host fled before the enemy, and many died in the flight.
Musa being returned to Damascus, the Caliph Abd-el Melek asked of him about his conquests, saying "Now tell me about these Franks—what is their nature?"
"They," replied Musa, "are a folk right numerous, and full of might: brave and impetuous in the attack, but cowardly and craven in event of defeat."
"And how has passed the war betwixt them and thyself? Favorably or the reverse?"
"The reverse? No, by Allah and the prophet!" spoke Musa. "Never has a company from my army been beaten. And never have the Moslems hesitated .
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